John Wiley & Sons DC-DC Converter Topologies Cover DC-DC Converter Topologies A comprehensive look at DC-DC converters and advanced power converter to.. Product #: 978-1-119-61242-1 Regular price: $139.25 $139.25 In Stock

DC-DC Converter Topologies

Basic to Advanced

Moschopoulos, Gerry

Wiley - IEEE

Cover

1. Edition December 2023
464 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-61242-1
John Wiley & Sons

Buy now

Price: 149,00 €

Price incl. VAT, excl. Shipping

Further versions

epubpdf

DC-DC Converter Topologies

A comprehensive look at DC-DC converters and advanced power converter topologies for all skills levels

As it can be rare for source voltage to meet the requirements of a Direct Current (DC) load, DC-DC converters are essential to access service. DC-DC power converters employ power semiconductor devices (like MOSFETs and IGBTs) as switches and passive elements such as capacitors, inductors, and transformers to alter the voltage provided by a DC source into the necessary DC voltage as is required by a DC load. This source can be a battery, solar panels, fuel cells, or a DC bus voltage fed by rectified AC utility voltage. As the many components of DC-DC converters can be differently arranged into circuit structures called topologies, there are as many possible circuit topologies as there are possible combinations of circuit elements.

Focusing on DC-DC switch-mode power converters ranging from 50 W to 10kW, DC-DC Converter Topologies provides a survey of all converter topology types within this power range. General principles are described for each topology type using a representative converter as an example. Variations that can be found that differ from the example are then examined, with a helpful discussion of comparisons when relevant. A broad range of topics is covered within the book, from simple, low-power converters to complex, high-power converters and everywhere in between.

DC-DC Converter Topologies readers will also find:
* A detailed discussion of four key DC-DC converter topologies
* Description of isolated two-switch pulse-width modulated (PWM) topologies including push-pull, half-bridge, and interleaved converters
* An exploration of high-gain converters such as coupled inductors, voltage multipliers, and switched capacitor converters

This book provides the tools so that a non-expert will be equipped to deal with the vast array of DC-DC converters that presently exist. As such, DC-DC Converter Topologies is a useful reference for electrical engineers, professors, and graduate students studying in the field.

About the Author xv

Preface xvi

1 Basic Concepts 1

1.1 Linear Voltage Regulators 1

1.2 Switch-Mode Power Supply Fundamentals 3

1.2.1 Buck Converter 3

1.2.2 Boost Converter 5

1.2.3 Buck-Boost Converter 6

1.3 PWM Converters with Voltage Step-Up and Step-Down Capabilities 8

1.3.1 Cuk Converter 8

1.3.2 Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC) 9

1.3.3 Zeta Converter 10

1.3.4 Comparison Between Converters with Voltage Step-Up and Step-Down Capabilities 10

1.4 Interleaved Converters 12

1.5 Semiconductor Devices 14

1.5.1 Silicon Diodes 14

1.5.2 Silicon MOSFETs 15

1.5.3 Silicon IGBTs 17

1.5.4 Gate Drive Circuits 18

1.5.5 Wide Bandgap Devices 19

1.6 Snubbers 21

1.7 Conclusion 23

References 23

2 Non-isolated Zero-voltage Switching PWM Converters 25

2.1 Basic ZVS Principles for MOSFETS 26

2.2 ZVS-PWM Quasi-Square-Wave DC-DC Converters 28

2.3 ZVS-PWM DC-DC Converters with Auxiliary Circuits 30

2.3.1 Nonresonant Auxiliary Circuits 31

2.3.2 Resonant Auxiliary Circuits 37

2.3.3 Dual Auxiliary Circuits 40

2.4 Miscellaneous Considerations 42

2.4.1 Application-Specific ZVS-PWM Converters 42

2.4.2 ZVS-PWM Techniques in Converters with Wide Bandgap Devices 43

2.5 Conclusion 44

References 45

3 Non-isolated Zero-current Switching PWM Converters 46

3.1 ZCS-PWM Converters with Series-Resonant Auxiliary Circuits 47

3.1.1 ZCS-PWM Converter with Fully Resonant Auxiliary Circuit 48

3.1.2 ZCS-PWM Converter with Modified Resonant Auxiliary Circuit 51

3.1.3 Converter with Hard-Switching Auxiliary Circuit 51

3.2 ZCS-PWM Boost Converters with Conventional PWM Converter Main Switch Current Stress 52

3.2.1 ZCS-PWM Converter with Series Boost Diode 52

3.2.2 ZCS-PWM Converter with Output Resonance 54

3.2.3 ZCT-PWM Converters with Parallel Auxiliary Circuit 55

3.3 ZVSZCS-PWM Boost Converters 57

3.4 Conclusion 60

References 61

4 Basic Isolated Converters 63

4.1 Transformer Models 64

4.2 Flyback Converter 64

4.3 Forward Converter 67

4.4 Variations on the Forward Converter 69

4.4.1 Forward Converter with RCD Snubber 69

4.4.2 Forward Converter with LCDD Snubber 70

4.4.3 Forward Converter with Regenerative Energy Snubber 71

4.5 Basic Two-Switch Isolated Converters 72

4.5.1 Two-Switch Forward Converter 72

4.5.2 Push-Pull Converter 74

4.5.3 Half-Bridge Converter 76

4.6 Full-Bridge Converter 77

4.7 Conclusion 80

Reference 81

5 Secondary-side Implementations in Isolated DC-DC Converters 82

5.1 Synchronous Rectifiers 82

5.2 Current Doublers 90

5.3 Multi-Output Converters 94

5.4 Conclusion 98

References 99

6 Soft-switching Forward and Flyback Converters 102

6.1 Forward Converters with Resonant Reset 103

6.2 Active Clamp Converter 104

6.2.1 Modes of Operation 106

6.2.2 Design Considerations 110

6.2.3 Active Clamp Flyback Converter 114

6.3 Alternatives to the Active Clamp Converter 115

6.3.1 Forward Converters 115

6.3.2 Flyback Converters 117

6.3.3 Converters with Regenerative Energy Snubber 119

6.4 Conclusion 120

References 121

7 The ZVS-PWM Full-bridge Converter 123

7.1 DC-DC PWM Full-Bridge Converter with Basic PWM Control 124

7.2 ZVS-PWM Full-Bridge Converter with Phase-Shift PWM 125

7.3 Issues Related to the Operation of ZVS-PWM PWM Full-Bridge Converter 131

7.3.1 ZVS Operation 131

7.3.2 Duty-Cycle Loss 134

7.3.3 Voltage Ringing 136

7.4 ZVS-PWM PWM Full-Bridge Converter Design Considerations 137

7.5 Light Load Operation and Hybrid PWM 140

7.6 ZVS PWM Full-Bridge Converters with Wide Bandgap Devices 140

7.7 Conclusion 141

References 142

8 Variations on the Conventional Zero-voltage-Switching DC-DC PWM Full-bridge Converter 144

8.1 Modified ZVS-PWM DC-DC Full-Bridge Converter with Saturable Reactors 145

8.1.1 Modified ZVS-PWM-FB Converter with Primary-Side Saturable Reactor 145

8.1.2 Modified ZVS-PWM-FB Converters with Secondary-Side Saturable Reactors 146

8.2 Modified ZVS-PWM-FB Converters with Passive Series Auxiliary Circuits 149

8.3 ZVS-PWM-FB Converters with Passive Parallel Auxiliary Circuits 151

8.4 ZVS-PWM-FB Converters with Passive Parallel Auxiliary Circuits with a Transformer 153

8.4.1 ZVS-PWM-FB Converter with a Passive Auxiliary Series Auxiliary Circuit with a Transformer 153

8.4.2 ZVS-PWM-FB Converters with Passive Parallel Auxiliary Circuits and Reduced Output Current Ripple 156

8.5 ZVS-PWM-FB Converters with Active Auxiliary Circuits 157

8.6 ZVS-PWM-FB Converter with a Single Active Auxiliary Circuit 161

8.7 ZVS-PWM-FB Converters Based on Dual Half-Bridge Converters 164

8.8 ZVS-PWM-FB Converters with Modified Secondary-Side Circuits for ZVS Operation 167

8.9 Conclusion 170

References 172

9 Zero-voltage-zero-current-switching DC-DC Full-bridge PWM Converters 174

9.1 Fundamental ZVZCS-PWM DC-DC Full-Bridge Converter 175

9.2 ZVZCS-PWM DC-DC Full-Bridge Converters with Secondary Auxiliary Circuit 183

9.3 Variations of ZVZCS Converters for Full ZVS or Full ZCS Operation 193

9.3.1 ZVS Converters 193

9.3.2 ZCS Converters 194

9.3.3 ZVS-PWM Converters Based on ZVZCS-PWM Converters with Triangular Primary Current Waveform 195

9.4 Conclusion 198

References 199

10 Isolated Current-fed DC-DC PWM Converters 201

10.1 Basic Current-Fed Push-Pull Converter 203

10.2 Basic Two-Inductor Current-Fed Converter 204

10.3 Modified Two-Inductor Current-Fed Converter with Auxiliary Transformer 207

10.4 Basic Current-Fed Full-Bridge Topology 210

10.5 Current-Fed DC-DC Full-Bridge Converters with Blocking Diodes 212

10.6 Current-Fed DC-DC Full-Bridge Converters without Blocking Diodes 215

10.6.1 ZVS-PWM Active-Clamp Full-Bridge Converter 215

10.6.2 ZCS-PWM Full-Bridge Converter with Parallel Auxiliary Circuit 217

10.7 Conclusion 219

References 220

11 Resonant Converters Part I - Fundamentals 222

11.1 Resonant Power Conversion Fundamentals 223

11.2 Fundamental Resonant DC-DC Converters 228

11.2.1 Resonant Converter Analysis Using First Harmonic Approximation Method 231

11.2.2 Series-Resonant Converter vs Parallel-Resonant Converter 234

11.2.3 Series-Parallel-Resonant Converter 236

11.3 LLC Resonant Converter 238

11.4 Other Resonant DC-DC Converters 241

11.5 Conclusion 245

References 246

12 Resonant Converters Part II - PWM Controlled, Quasi-resonant, and Ultrahigh-frequency Converters 248

12.1 Fixed Frequency Resonant Converters 249

12.1.1 Full-Bridge Resonant Converters Operated with Phase-Shift PWM 249

12.1.2 Resonant Converters Operated with Asymmetrical PWM 252

12.1.3 Adding Variable Resonant Components 257

12.2 Quasi-Resonant Converters 258

12.2.1 Resonant Pulse Converters 264

12.2.2 Fixed-Frequency Quasi-Resonant Converters 265

12.3 Ultrahigh Frequency Converters 266

12.3.1 Multi-Resonant Converters 267

12.3.2 Ultrahigh Frequency Converters Based on Radio-Frequency Amplifier Circuits 268

12.3.3 Ultrahigh Frequency Converters with Air-Core Inductors 269

12.4 Conclusion 270

References 270

13 Three-level DC-DC Converters 273

13.1 Fundamental Three-Level DC-DC PWM Converters 274

13.1.1 Neutral-Point-Clamped Three-Level DC-DC Converter 274

13.1.2 Flying Capacitor Three-Level DC-DC Converter 280

13.1.3 Three-Level DC-DC Converter with Series Blocking Capacitor 286

13.1.4 Comparison of Fundamental Three-Level DC-DC Converter Topologies 291

13.2 Modified Three-Level DC-DC Converters 292

13.2.1 ZVS Three-Level Converters 292

13.2.2 ZVZCS Three-Level Converters 298

13.3 Stacked Converters 302

13.4 Three-Level DC-DC Converters in Applications with Low and Conventional DC Bus Voltage 306

13.5 Conclusion 307

References 308

14 High Gain Converters 311

14.1 Voltage Multiplier Circuits 312

14.1.1 Output Voltage Multiplier Circuits 312

14.1.2 Internal Voltage Multiplier Circuits 316

14.2 Switched Capacitor Converters 318

14.3 Voltage-Lift and Switched Inductor Converters 321

14.4 Cascaded and Quadratic Converters 326

14.5 Converters with Magnetic Coupling 328

14.5.1 Tapped Inductor Converters 328

14.5.2 Coupled Inductor Converters 329

14.5.3 Transformer-Coupled Converters 331

14.6 Multi-Level and Interleaved Converters 331

14.6.1 Multi-Level Converters 332

14.6.2 Interleaved Converters 335

14.7 Hybrid Converters and Converter Selection 336

14.8 Conclusion 340

References 340

15 Three-phase DC-DC Converters 343

15.1 Fundamental Voltage-Fed Three-Phase DC-DC PWM Converter 344

15.1.1 Basic Operating Principles with Symmetrical PWM 344

15.1.2 Operation with Asymmetrical PWM 346

15.1.3 Modified Output Section with Three Output Diodes 347

15.2 Resonant Converters 349

15.2.1 Parallel Resonant Converter Based on the Fundamental Converter 349

15.2.2 Three-Phase Series-Parallel Resonant Converters with Variable and Fixed Switching Frequency Operation 350

15.3 Three-Phase Current-Fed DC-DC PWM Converters 351

15.3.1 Three-Phase ZVS Active Clamp Converter 351

15.3.2 Three-Phase ZCS Converter 353

15.4 Higher-Power Three-Phase DC-DC Converters 355

15.4.1 High-Power Converter with Three Single-Phase PWM Full-Bridges 355

15.4.2 High-Power Converter with Three Single-Phase Resonant Full-Bridges 356

15.5 Three-Switch Three-Phase DC-DC PWM Converters 356

15.5.1 Three-Phase Push-Pull Converter 357

15.5.2 ZVS Active Clamp Converter 359

15.5.3 ZCS Converter with Secondary-Side Resonance 361

15.5.4 Converter with Mini-Flyback Snubber 362

15.6 Miscellaneous Three-Phase Converter Examples 363

15.6.1 Three-Phase DC-DC Multi-Level Converter 363

15.6.2 Three-Phase DC-DC High-Gain Converter 364

15.7 Three-Phase Transformer Implementations 365

15.8 Conclusion 367

References 367

16 Bidirectional and Dual Active Bridge Converters 369

16.1 Basic Non-Isolated Bidirectional Converters 370

16.2 ZVS Operation of the Fundamental Buck-Boost Bidirectional Converter 372

16.2.1 Bidirectional Quasi-Square Wave Converter 372

16.2.2 Four-Switch Buck-Boost Converter 373

16.2.3 Active Auxiliary Circuits 375

16.3 Bidirectional Converter Topologies with Transformer Isolation 377

16.4 Dual Active Bridge Converters 381

16.4.1 Dual Active Bridge Half-Bridge Converter 381

16.4.2 Dual Active Bridge PWM Full-Bridge Converters 383

16.5 Conclusion 387

References 388

17 Miscellaneous DC-DC Converters 391

17.1 Z-Source Converters 392

17.2 Low Voltage Gain Converters for Voltage Regulator Modules 396

17.3 T-Type Converters 401

17.4 Multi-Port Converters 405

17.4.1 Non-Isolated Multi-Input Converters 406

17.4.2 Isolated Multi-Port Converters 408

17.5 Conclusion 412

References 413

Appendix 415

Index 427
Gerry Moschopoulos, PhD, is a Professor at Western University, London, ON, Canada and is a Registered Professional Engineer in the province of Ontario.

G. Moschopoulos, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada