John Wiley & Sons Process Plant Design Cover Process Plant Design An introductory practical guide to process plant design for students of chemic.. Product #: 978-1-119-68991-1 Regular price: $87.76 $87.76 In Stock

Process Plant Design

Smith, Robin

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1. Edition December 2023
560 Pages, Softcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-68991-1
John Wiley & Sons

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Process Plant Design

An introductory practical guide to process plant design for students of chemical engineering and practicing chemical engineers.

Process Plant Design provides an introductory practical guide to the subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of chemical engineering, and practicing chemical engineers.
* Process Plant Design starts by presenting general background from the early stages of chemical process projects and moves on to deal with the infrastructure required to support the operation of process plants.
* The reliability, maintainability and availability issues addressed in the text are important for process safety, and the avoidance of high maintenance costs, adverse environmental impact, and unnecessary process breakdowns that might prevent production targets being achieved.
* A practical approach is presented for the systematic synthesis of process control schemes, which has traditionally received little attention, especially when considering overall process control systems.
* The development of preliminary piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) is addressed, which are key documents in process engineering.
* A guide is presented for the choice of materials of construction, which affects resistance to corrosion, mechanical design and the capital cost of equipment.
* Whilst the final mechanical design of vessels and equipment is normally carried out by specialist mechanical engineers, it is still necessary for process designers to have an understanding of mechanical design for a variety of reasons.
* Finally, Process Plant Design considers layout, which has important implications for safety, environmental impact, and capital and operating costs.

To aid reader comprehension, Process Plant Design features worked examples throughout the text.

Process Plant Design is a valuable resource on the subject for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of chemical engineering, as well as practicing chemical engineers working in process design. The text is also useful for industrial disciplines related to chemical engineering working on the design of chemical processes.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Nomenclature xv

About the Companion Website xix

1 Chemical Process Projects 1

1.1 The Process Plant Design Problem 1

1.2 Continuous and Batch Processes 2

1.3 New Design and Retrofit 3

1.4 Hazard Management in Process Plant Design 4

1.5 Project Phases 4

1.6 Chemical Process Projects - Summary 5

References 6

2 Process Economics 7

2.1 Capital Cost Estimates 7

2.2 Class 5 Capital Cost Estimates 8

2.3 Class 4 Capital Cost Estimates 9

2.4 Class 3 to Class 1 Capital Cost Estimates 15

2.5 Capital Cost of Retrofit 15

2.6 Annualized Capital Cost 16

2.7 Operating Cost 17

2.8 Economic Evaluation 20

2.9 Investment Criteria 23

2.10 Process Economics . Summary 23

Exercises 24

References 25

3 Development of Process Design Concepts 27

3.1 Formulation of Design Problems 27

3.2 Evaluation of Performance 27

3.3 Optimization of Performance 28

3.4 Approaches to the Development of Design Concepts 29

3.5 Screening Design Options 32

3.6 Influencing the Design as the Project Progresses 33

3.7 Development of Process Design Concepts - Summary 34

References 35

4 Heating Utilities 37

4.1 Process Heating and Cooling 38

4.2 Steam Heating 39

4.3 Water Treatment for Steam Generation 44

4.4 Steam Generation from the Combustion of Fuels 45

4.5 Steam Generation from Electrical Energy 48

4.6 Gas Turbines 50

4.7 Steam Turbines 51

4.8 Steam Distribution 55

4.9 Steam Heating Limits 64

4.10 Fired Heaters 64

4.11 Other Heat Carriers 68

4.12 Heating Utilities - Summary 74

Exercises 74

References 76

5 Cooling Utilities 77

5.1 Waste Heat Steam Generation 77

5.2 Once-Through Cooling Water Systems 77

5.3 Recirculating Cooling Water Systems 78

5.4 Air Coolers 80

5.5 Refrigeration 82

5.6 Choice of a Single Component Refrigerant for Compression Refrigeration 88

5.7 Mixed Refrigerants for Compression Refrigeration 89

5.8 Absorption Refrigeration 93

5.9 Indirect Refrigeration 93

5.10 Cooling Utilities . Summary 94

Exercises 95

References 96

6 Waste Treatment 97

6.1 Aqueous Emissions 97

6.2 Primary Wastewater Treatment Processes 101

6.3 Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes 104

6.4 Tertiary Wastewater Treatment Processes 109

6.5 Atmospheric Emissions 109

6.6 Treatment of Solid Particulate Emissions to Atmosphere 111

6.7 Treatment of VOC Emissions to Atmosphere 114

6.8 Treatment of Sulfur Emissions to Atmosphere 120

6.9 Treatment of Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions to Atmosphere 123

6.10 Treatment of Combustion Emissions to Atmosphere 124

6.11 Atmospheric Dispersion 127

6.12 Waste Treatment . Summary 128

Exercises 128

References 129

7 Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability Concepts 131

7.1 Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability 131

7.2 Reliability 133

7.3 Repairable and Non-repairable Systems 136

7.4 Reliability Data 139

7.5 Maintainability 141

7.6 Availability 143

7.7 Process Shut-down for Maintenance 144

7.8 Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability Concepts . Summary 145

Exercises 145

References 146

8 Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability of Systems 147

8.1 System Representation 147

8.2 Reliability of Series Systems 147

8.3 Reliability of Parallel Systems 149

8.4 Availability of Parallel Systems 153

8.5 Availability of Series Systems 153

8.6 Redundancy 156

8.7 k-out-of-n Systems 159

8.8 Common Mode Failure 161

8.9 Capacity 166

8.10 Reliability, Availability, and Capacity 169

8.11 Monte Carlo Simulation 169

8.12 Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability of Systems . Summary 172

Exercises 172

References 174

9 Storage Tanks 175

9.1 Feed, Product, and Intermediate Storage 175

9.2 Intermediate (Buffer) Storage and Process Availability 177

9.3 Optimization of Intermediate Storage 181

9.4 Storage Tanks . Summary 182

Exercise 182

References 183

10 Process Control Concepts 185

10.1 Control Objectives 185

10.2 The Control Loop 185

10.3 Measurement 186

10.4 Control Signals 187

10.5 The Controller 187

10.6 Final Control Element 191

10.7 Feedback Control 195

10.8 Cascade Control 197

10.9 Split Range Control 198

10.10 Limit and Selector Control 200

10.11 Feedforward Control 201

10.12 Ratio Control 204

10.13 Computer Control Systems 205

10.14 Digital Control 207

10.15 Safety Instrumented Systems 210

10.16 Alarms and Trips 211

10.17 Representation of Control Systems 211

10.18 Process Control Concepts - Summary 215

Exercise 215

References 216

11 Process Control - Flowrate and Inventory Control 217

11.1 Flowrate Control 217

11.2 Inventory Control of Individual Operations 217

11.3 Inventory Control of Series Systems 223

11.4 Inventory Control of Recycle Systems 226

11.5 Flowrate and Inventory Control - Summary 227

References 228

12 Process Control - Degrees of Freedom 229

12.1 Degrees of Freedom and Process Control 229

12.2 Degrees of Freedom for Process Streams 231

12.3 Individual Single-Phase Operations 233

12.4 Heat Transfer Operations with No Phase Change 237

12.5 Pumps and Compressors 241

12.6 Equilibrated Multiphase Operations 243

12.7 Control Degrees of Freedom for Overall Processes 246

12.8 Degrees of Freedom - Summary 256

Exercises 256

References 257

13 Process Control - Control of Process Operations 259

13.1 Pump Control 259

13.2 Compressor Control 262

13.3 Heat Exchange Control 267

13.4 Furnace Control 271

13.5 Flash Drum Control 274

13.6 Absorber and Stripper Control 274

13.7 Distillation Control 278

13.8 Reactor Control 291

13.9 Control of Process Operations - Summary 301

Exercises 301

References 302

14 Process Control - Overall Process Control 303

14.1 Illustrative Example of Overall Process Control Systems 303

14.2 Synthesis of Overall Process Control Schemes 310

14.3 Procedure for the Synthesis of Overall Process Control Schemes 311

14.4 Evolution of the Control Design 323

14.5 Process Dynamics 324

14.6 Overall Process Control - Summary 325

Exercises 325

References 328

15 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams - Piping and Pressure Relief 329

15.1 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams 329

15.2 Piping Systems 330

15.3 Pressure Relief 335

15.4 Relief Device Arrangements 338

15.5 Reliability of Pressure Relief Devices 341

15.6 Location of Relief Devices 345

15.7 P&ID Piping and Pressure Relief - Summary 346

Exercises 346

References 348

16 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams - Process Operations 349

16.1 Pumps 349

16.2 Compressors 355

16.3 Heat Exchangers 359

16.4 Distillation 361

16.5 Liquid Storage 366

16.6 P&ID Process Operations - Summary 373

Exercises 373

References 374

17 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams - Construction 375

17.1 Development of Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams 375

17.2 A Case Study 376

17.3 P&ID Construction - Summary 387

References 387

18 Materials of Construction 389

18.1 Mechanical Properties 389

18.2 Corrosion 392

18.3 Corrosion Allowance 393

18.4 Commonly Used Materials of Construction 393

18.5 Criteria for Selection of Materials of Construction 397

18.6 Materials of Construction - Summary 398

References 398

19 Mechanical Design 399

19.1 Stress, Strain, and Deformation 399

19.2 Combined Stresses 423

19.3 Spherical Vessels Under Internal Pressure 426

19.4 Cylindrical Vessels Under Internal Pressure 428

19.5 Design of Heads for Cylindrical Vessels Under Internal Pressure 431

19.6 Design of Vertical Cylindrical Pressure Vessels Under Internal Pressure 434

19.7 Design of Horizontal Cylindrical Pressure Vessels Under Internal Pressure 439

19.8 Buckling of Cylindrical Vessels Due to External Pressure and Axial Compression 445

19.9 Welded and Bolted Joints 448

19.10 Opening Reinforcements 451

19.11 Vessel Supports 453

19.12 Design of Flat-bottomed Cylindrical Vessels 462

19.13 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers 463

19.14 Mechanical Design - Summary 464

Exercises 465

References 467

20 Process Plant Layout . Site Layout 469

20.1 Site, Process, and Equipment Layout 469

20.2 Separation Distances 470

20.3 Separation for Vapor Cloud Explosions 472

20.4 Separation for Toxic Emissions 477

20.5 Site Access 477

20.6 Site Topology, Groundwater, and Drainage 479

20.7 Geotechnical Engineering 481

20.8 Atmospheric Discharges 481

20.9 Wind Direction 482

20.10 Utilities 483

20.11 Process Units 483

20.12 Control Room 483

20.13 Ancillary Buildings 485

20.14 Pipe Racks 485

20.15 Constraints on Site Layout 487

20.16 The Final Site Layout 487

20.17 Site Layout . Summary 487

References 487

21 Process Plant Layout . Process Layout 489

21.1 Process Access 489

21.2 Process Structures 489

21.3 Hazards 492

21.4 Preliminary Process Layout 492

21.5 Example - Preliminary Process Layout 493

21.6 Process Layout - Summary 498

References 498

Appendix A Weibull Reliability Function 499

Appendix B MTTF for the Weibull Distribution 501

Appendix C Reliability of Cold Standby Systems 503

Reference 504

Appendix D Corrosion Resistance Table 505

Appendix E Moment of Inertia and Bending Stress for Common Beam Cross-Sections 509

E.1 Solid Rectangular Cross-Section 509

E.2 Hollow Rectangular Cross-Section 509

E.3 Solid Circular Cylinder 510

E.4 Hollow Circular Cross-Section 511

E.5 Approximate Expressions for Thin-Walled Cylinders 511

Appendix F First Moment of Area and Shear Stress for Common Beam Cross-Sections 513

F.1 Solid Rectangular Cross-Section 513

F.2 Hollow Rectangular Cross-Section 513

F.3 Solid Circular Cross-Section 514

F.4 Hollow Circular Cross-Sections 515

Reference 515

Appendix G Principal Stresses 517

Appendix H Dimensions and Weights of Carbon Steel Pipes 521

Appendix I Bending Moment on Horizontal Cylindrical Vessels Resulting from a Liquid Hydraulic Head 525

References 526

Appendix J Equivalent Cylinder Approximation 527

Index 529
Professor Robin Smith is Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Manchester. Before joining the University of Manchester he gained extensive industrial experience with different companies in process investigation, production, process design, process modelling and process integration. He has co-founded three spin-out companies from the University of Manchester and has acted extensively as a consultant to industry. He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers in the UK and a Chartered Engineer. He has published widely in the field of process integration and is author of "Chemical Process Design and Integration", published by Wiley. He was awarded the Hanson Medal of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, UK for his work on waste minimization, and the Sargent Medal for his work on process integration.

R. Smith, UMIST, UK