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Ecologically Based Weed Management

Concepts, Challenges, and Limitations

Korres, Nicholas E. / Travlos, Ilias S. / Gitsopoulos, Thomas K. (Editor)


1. Edition January 2024
352 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-70966-4
John Wiley & Sons

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Ecologically Based Weed Management

Protect crop yields and strengthen ecosystems with this essential guide

Research into weed management is an increasingly critical component of both environmental stewardship and food production. The potential cost of weed propagation can be measured in crop yield reductions, under-nourished populations, stymied economies, and more. The propagation of herbicide-resistant weed populations means that purely chemical weed management is no longer viable; food production can now be secured only with an ecological approach to weed control.

Ecologically Based Weed Management details such approaches and their potential to manage weeds across a range of agricultural and environmental contexts. It emphasizes the deployment of ecological principles to prevent weed infestations, reduce crop losses, and strengthen ecosystems. In a time when growing population and changing climates are placing enormous pressure on global food production, this approach to weed management has never been more vital.

Ecologically Based Weed Management readers will also find:
* A global team of expert contributors to a multidisciplinary approach
* Detailed discussion of topics like herbicide limitation, integrated weed management, and more
* Insights pertinent to agriculture, academia, government, industry, and more

Ecologically Based Weed Management is ideal for researchers in agriculture chemistry, weed science, agronomy, ecology, and related fields, as well as for regulators and advanced students.

Preface xii

List of Contributors xiv

List of Reviewers xvii

1 Ecologically Based Weed Management (EbWM): Enabling and Reinforcing the Approach 1
Leguizamon Eduardo S., Royo-Esnal Aritz, and Torra Joel

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Basis for a Sucessful Ecologically Based Weed Management Approach 2

1.2 Enabling and Reinforcing EbWM Principles in All Crop Production Systems 3

1.3 Projects / Experiments Where EwBM Principles Are Being Tested 8

1.4 Concluding Remarks 9

2 Ecologically Based Weed Management: Implications and Agroecosystem Services 13
Nicholas E. Korres

2.0 Introduction 13

2.1 Agro- and Natural Ecosystem Services 14

2.2 Do Weed Management Practices Negatively Affect Ecosystem Services? 15

2.3 Weed Management Practices that Enhance Ecological Services 18

2.4 Conclusions 19

3 Climate Change and Ecologically Based Weed Management 23
Adusumilli Narayana Rao (A.N. Rao) and Nicholas E. Korres

3.0 Introduction 23

3.1 Climate Change and Weeds 24

3.2 Climate Change and Weed Management 29

3.3 Ecologically Based Weed Management 30

3.4 Managing Weed Soil Seedbank Using Preventive Measures 30

3.5 Application of Principles of Conservation Agriculture for EWM 31

3.6 Crop Competitiveness 34

3.7 Soil Solarization 35

3.8 Mechanical Weed Management 35

3.9 Biocontrol 35

3.10 Herbicide Use and EWM 36

3.11 Conclusions 36

4 The Ecological Base of Nonchemical Weed Control 49
Iraj Nosratti and Bhagirath S. Chauhan

4.0 Introduction 49

4.1 Physical Weed Control 50

4.2 Soil Tillage 52

4.3 Thermal Weed Control 58

4.4 Mulching 58

4.5 Biological Weed Control 59

4.6 Allelopathy 60

4.7 Cultural Weed Control 61

4.8 Crop Diversification for Weed Management 62

4.9 Conclusions 65

5 The Underestimated Role of Cultural Practices in Ecologically Based Weed Management Approaches 75
Ilias Travlos, Ioannis Gazoulis, Milena Simic, Panagiotis Kanatas, and Ioannis Gazoulis

5.0 Introduction 75

5.1 Role of Crop Diversification in Ecologically Based Weed Management 76

5.2 Role of Crop Competition in Ecologically Based Weed Management 79

5.3 Role of Sowing Timing in Ecologically Based Weed Management 84

5.4 Role of Irrigation and Fertilization Management in Weed Management 85

5.5 Conclusions 85

6 The Role of Agri-Chemical Industry on Ecologically Based Weed Management 93
Vasileios P. Vasileiadis, Vijay K. Varanasi, Parminder Chahal, and Nicholas E. Korres

6.0 Introduction 93

6.1 Herbicide Resistance 93

6.2 Climate Change 94

6.3 Environmentally Sound Weed Control Approaches 94

6.4 Environmentally Friendly Industry Initiatives 95

7 Ecologically Based Weed Management to Support Pollination and Biological Pest Control 101
Vaya Kati and Filitsa Karamaouna

7.0 Introduction 101

7.1 Weed-Insect Interactions 102

7.2 Weed Management to Support Pollination and Biological Control 104

7.3 Challenges for Implementation of Ecological Weed Management in Practice 110

7.4 Conclusions 111

8 Use of Arthropods for Ecologically Based Weed Management in Agriculture 119
Michael D. Day, Arne B. R. Witt, and Rachel L. Winston

8.0 Introduction 119

8.1 Weed Biological Control in Agriculture 121

8.2 Biological Control in Cropping Systems 122

8.3 Biological Control in Grazing Lands 124

8.4 Biological Control in Plantations and Agroforestry Systems 126

8.5 Biological Control in Aquatic Systems 129

8.6 Benefits of Biological Control 131

8.7 Conclusions 132

9 Ecologically Based Weed Management: Bioherbicides, Nanotechnology, Heat, and Microbially Mediated Soil Disinfestation 139
Raghavan Charudattan, Susan M. Boyetchko, Erin N. Rosskopf, Kaydene T. Williams, Andrea Monroy Borrego, and Nicole F. Steinmetz

9.0 Biological Control of Weeds by Using Plant Pathogens 139

9.1 A Critical Assessment of the Role of Plant Pathogens in Weed Management 140

9.2 Expectations for the Future of Bioherbicides 147

9.3 Nonchemical Soil Disinfestation 150

9.4 Use of Nanocarriers to Deliver Active Ingredients (a.i) 157

9.5 Summary 161

10 Mechanisms of Weed Suppression by Cover Crops, Intercrops, and Mulches 172
Richard G. Smith, Natalie P. Lounsbury, and Samuel A. Palmer

10.0 Introduction 172

10.1 Traditional View of the Weed Seedbank 173

10.2 Alternative View of the Weed Seedbank and the Fate of Weeds 174

10.3 Mechanisms of Weed Suppression by Cover Crops, Intercrops, and Mulches 175

10.4 Conclusions and Future Research Directions 185

11 Soil Seedbank from an Ecological Perspective 196
Lauren M. Schwartz-Lazaro and Karla L. Gage

11.0 Introduction 196

11.1 The Soil Seedbank 196

11.2 Contributions to the Soil Seedbank 200

11.3 Reducing the Soil Seedbank 203

11.4 Managing the Soil Seedbank 206

11.5 Seedbank Response to Best Management Practices 212

11.6 Conclusions 213

12 The Role and Relationship of Tillage Systems with Ecologically Based Weed Management Approaches 225
Thomas Gitsopoulos and Ioannis Vasilakoglou

12.0 Introduction 225

12.1 Tillage Systems 226

12.2 Ecologically Based Weed Management Approaches and Tillage Systems 227

12.3 Herbicide Efficacy, Herbicide Resistance, and Organic Farming 239

12.4 Conclusions 239

13 Ecologically Based Weed Management in Vegetable Crops 248
Matthias Schumacher, Michael Spaeth, Georg Naruhn, David Reiser, Miriam Messelhäuser, Rosa Witty, Roland Gerhards, and Gerassimos Peteinatos

13.0 Introduction 248

13.1 Cultural Methods 250

13.2 Preventive Methods 251

13.4 Conclusion and Outlook 255

14 Ecological Weed Management in Row Crops 261
Stevan Z. Knezevic

14.0 Introduction 261

14.1 Integrated Weed Management (IWM) in Row Crops 262

14.2 Making a Weed Control Decision 265

14.3 Computer-Based Models and Decision Support Systems 266

14.4 Documentation and Record Keeping 267

14.5 Ecologically Based Weed Management in Row Crops- Final Thoughts 267

15 Practical Vegetable and Specialty Crop Weed Management Systems 270
Katie Jennings and Steve Fennimore

15.0 Introduction 270

15.1 What Is Ecologically Based Weed Management in Specialty Crops? 270

15.2 Unique Challenges for Vegetables and Other Specialty Crops 271

15.3 Compatibility of Specialty Crops with Ecologically Based Weed Management 272

15.4 Chemical Methods of Weed Control in Specialty Crops 280

15.5 Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Research 280

16 The Need of Ecologically Based Weed Management Approaches in Orchard Crops 286
Victor Martins Maia, Ignacio Aspiazú, Leandro Galon, Clevison Luiz Giacobbo, Germani Concenço, Alexandre Ferreira da Silva, Evander Alves Ferreira, and George Andrade Sodré

16.0 Introduction 286

16.1 Ecologically Based Weed Management Approaches in Fruit Crops Species Grown in Tropical and Subtropical Environments 287

16.2 Tropical Fruit Crop Species 288

16.3 Subtropical Fruit Crop Species 290

16.4 Ecologically Based Weed Management Approaches in Temperate Fruit Crops Species Growing in Tropical and Subtropical Environments 291

16.5 Conclusions 295

17 Application of Ecologically Based Weed Management in Pastures 299
Jonathan W. McLachlan and Brian M. Sindel

17.0 Introduction 299

17.1 Ecology of Pasture Systems 300

17.2 Impacts of Weeds in Pastures 303

17.3 Weed Management Principles for Pastures 304

17.4 Application of Weed Management Principles 306

17.5 Future Perspectives 309

17.6 Conclusions 309

Index 313
Nicholas E. Korres, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Agronomy and Weed Science at the Dept. of Agriculture, University of Ioannina, Greece. His research is focused on weed and crop biology, weed ecology and integrated weed control and he has published extensively on these and related subjects. He is a broad member of the Weed Science Society of Greece.

Ilias S. Travlos, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Agronomy & Weed Science at the Agricultural University of Athens, Greece. He has been the President of the Weed Society of Greece and an elected board member of the European Weed Research Society (EWRS).

Thomas K. Gitsopoulos, PhD, is a Weed Science Researcher at the Hellenic Agricultural Organization (HAO)-DEMETER, Greece, and is a current board member of HAO-DEMETER and the Weed Science Society of Greece. He has published widely on weed science and related fields.

N. E. Korres, University of Ioannina, Kostakii, Greece; I. S. Travlos, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece; T. K. Gitsopoulos, Hellenic Agricultural Organization, Demeter, Greece