John Wiley & Sons Hydrogen Electrical Vehicles Cover HYDROGEN ELECTRICAL VEHICLES Hydrogen electrical vehicles are an essential component of the "Green .. Product #: 978-1-394-16638-1 Regular price: $167.29 $167.29 In Stock

Hydrogen Electrical Vehicles

Sankir, Mehmet / Sankir, Nurdan Demirci (Editor)

Advances in Hydrogen Production and Storage (AHPS)


1. Edition February 2023
272 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-394-16638-1
John Wiley & Sons

Further versions



Hydrogen electrical vehicles are an essential component of the "Green New Deal" and this book covers cutting-edge technologies designed for fuel-cell-powered cars.

The realization of the decision of 28 countries to keep global warming at 2 degrees and below, which is stated in the Paris Agreement, and the achievement of minimizing CO2 emissions, can only be accomplished by establishing a hydrogen ecosystem. A new geopolitical order is envisaged, in which sectors dealing with energy production, distribution, and storage, thus decreasing the carbon footprint, are reconstructed. In short, an economic order with new tax regulations is being created in which the carbon footprint will be followed. This global effort called the "Green Deal" is defined as a new growth strategy aiming at net-zero CO2 emissions. We know that the total share of transportation in CO2 emissions is about 24%. Therefore, efforts for reducing emissions must include utilizing hydrogen in transport.

The subjects covered in the book include:
* An introduction to hydrogen and electrical vehicles;
* Hydrogen storage and compression systems;
* Hydrogen propulsion systems for UAVs;
* Test and evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles;
* Hydrogen production and PEM fuel cells for electrical vehicles;
* The power and durability issues of fuel cell vehicles.


The book will attract readers from diverse fields such as chemistry, physics, materials science, engineering, mechanical and chemical engineering, as well as energy-focused engineering and hydrogen generation industry programs that will take advantage of using this comprehensive review of the hydrogen electrical vehicles.

Preface xi

1 Hydrogen Electrical Vehicles 1
Ameen Uddin Ammar, Mohamad Hasan Aleinawi and Emre Erdem

1.1 Hydrogen Usage in Electrical Vehicles 1

1.2 Hydrogen Production for Electrical Vehicles 4

1.3 Hydrogen Storage Methods 6

1.4 State-of-the-Art for Hydrogen Generation and Usage for Electrical Vehicles 6

1.5 Conclusions 8

References 9

2 Study on a New Hydrogen Storage System - Performance, Permeation, and Filling/Refilling 11
Leonardo Ribeiro, Gustavo F. Pinto, Andresa Baptista and Joaquim Monteiro

2.1 Introduction 12

2.2 Outline of the New Storage System 15

2.2.1 Theoretical Tools Used for the System Analysis 16

2.3 Results 31

2.4 Conclusions 38

Abbreviations 40

List of Symbols 40

Subscripts 41

Greek Symbols 42

References 42

3 A Review on Hydrogen Compression Methods for Hydrogen Refuelling Stations 47
Nikolaos Chalkiadakis, Athanasios Stubos, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Emmanuel Zoulias and Theocharis Tsoutsos

3.1 Introduction 48

3.2 Mechanical Compressors 49

3.2.1 Reciprocating Piston Compressors 49 Basic Components and Operation of Reciprocating Piston Compressors 50 Thermodynamic and Motion Dynamics Principles of Reciprocating Piston Compressors 51

3.2.2 Reciprocating Diaphragm Compressors 55 Reciprocating Diaphragm Compressor Components 56 Operating Principle of Diaphragm Compressor 57

3.2.3 Integration of Reciprocating Piston Compressors in Hydrogen Refueling Stations 58

3.3 Non-Mechanical Compressors 58

3.3.1 Metal Hydride Compressors 59 Principle of Operation 59

3.3.2 Typical Metal Hydride Compressor Stage 61 Thermodynamic Analysis of Single Metal Hydride Compressor Stage 62 Metal Hydride Compressor Stage Design 64

3.3.3 Metal Hydride Compressors Stages Integration 65

3.3.4 Metal Hydride Compressor Integration in Hydrogen Refuelling Stations 66

3.4 Electrochemical Compressors 67

3.4.1 Components and Operation of Electrochemical Compressors 67

3.4.2 Integration of Electrochemical Compression in a Hydrogen Refuelling Station 71

References 72

4 Current Technologies and Future Trends of Hydrogen Propulsion Systems in Hybrid Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 75
Hasan Ç1nar, Ilyas Kandemir and Teresa Donateo

4.1 Introduction of Fuel Cell-Based Propulsion for UAVs 76

4.2 Unified Classification of the Components | of a Hybrid Electric Power System in UAVs 79

4.2.1 Converters 79

4.2.2 Storage Systems 84

4.3 Fuel Cell-Based Hybrid Propulsion System Architectures 87

4.4 Experiments on Fuel Cell-Based UAVs 89

4.5 Energy Management Strategies of Fuel Cell-Based Propulsion 92

4.6 Conclusions and Future Trends for Fuel Cell-Based Propulsion of UAVs 99

References 101

5 Test and Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles 111
Dong Hao, Yanyi Zhang, Renguang Wang, Tian Sun and Minghui Ma

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Test and Evaluation System 113

5.2.1 Test and Evaluation System for FCVs 113

5.2.2 Test and Evaluation System for FCEs 113

5.2.3 Test and Evaluation System for Main Components 115

5.3 Safety Performance Requirements for FCVs 115

5.3.1 Safety Requirements for Whole Vehicle of FCVs 117 Requirements for Vehicle Hydrogen Emission 117 Requirements for Vehicle Hydrogen Leakage 117 Requirements for Reminder of Low Residual Hydrogen Gas in the Tank 118 Requirements for Electrical Safety 118

5.3.2 Safety Requirements for Hydrogen System Safety 118 Requirements for the Hydrogen Storage Tanks and Pipelines 119 Requirements for Pressure Relief System 119 Requirements for Hydrogen Refueling and Receptacle 119 Requirements for Hydrogen Pipeline Leakage and Detection 120 Requirements for the Function of Hydrogen Leakage Alarm Device 120 Requirements for Hydrogen Discharge of Storage Tank 120

5.4 Hydrogen Leakage and Emission Test 120

5.4.1 Analysis of Existing Related Standards 121

5.4.2 Development of Sealed Test Chamber 121 Internal Dimensions 121 Air Exchange Rate 121 Security Measures Adopted for Test Chamber 122 Arrangement of Key Components 122

5.4.3 Test Conditions 123

5.4.4 Test of Two-Fuel-Cell Passenger Cars 123

5.4.5 Test Results Analysis 123 Hydrogen Leakage in the Parking State 123 Hydrogen Emissions Under Combined Operating Conditions 126

5.5 Test for Energy Consumption and Range of FCVs 128

5.5.1 Test Vehicle Preparation 129

5.5.2 Test Procedure 129

5.5.3 Requirements for Data Collection 130

5.5.4 Range and Energy Consumption Calculation for FCVs 130 Data Process Steps for the Plugin FCVs 130 Data Analysis for the Plugin FCVs 132

5.5.5 Test of Range and Energy Consumption for Fuel Cell Passenger Car 133 Test of Plugin Fuel Cell Car 133 Test of Non-Plugin Fuel Cell Car 134

5.5.6 Test of Range and Energy Consumption for Fuel Cell Truck 135 Brief Introduction of Test Vehicle and Test Cycles 135 Test Requirements 135 Power Change and Energy Consumption Results 136 Hydrogen Emission and Hydrogen Leakage 138

5.6 Subzero Cold Start Test for FCVs 139

5.6.1 Test Method for Cold Start Under Subzero Temperature 140 Test Conditions 140 Vehicle Soaking Under Subzero Temperature 140 Test Process for Subzero Cold Start of FCE 141 Test Process for Subzero Cold Start of FCVs 141 Data Collection and Results 142

5.6.2 Test for Subzero Cold Start of FCVs 143 Test System Development 143 Analysis of Test Results 144

5.7 Conclusion 146

References 147

6 Hydrogen Production and Polymer Electrode Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for Electrical Vehicles 149
Cigdem Tuc Altaf, Tuluhan Olcayto Çolak, Alihan Kumtepe, Emine Karagöz, Ozlem Coskun, Nurdan Demirci Sankir and Mehmet Sankir

6.1 Introduction 150

6.1.1 Energy Challenges and Green Energy Demand 150

6.1.2 FC in Green Energy Aspect 151

6.1.3 Recent Developments in FC Vehicles (FCV) Market 152

6.2 PEMFC Technology 154

6.2.1 PEMFC Working Principle and Components 154 Proton Exchange Membrane 156 Electrodes 159 Bipolar Plate (BP) 160

6.2.2 Fuel Cell Efficiency 166

6.2.3 Challenges to Overcome for FCVs 168

6.3 Hydrogen Storage for FCs and On-Demand Hydrogen Generation 169

6.3.1 Hydrogen Storage 169 Physical-Based Hydrogen Storage 170 Material-Based Hydrogen Storage 171

6.3.2 On-Board Hydrogen Generation 174

6.3.3 Are the FCs Considered to be 100% Green? 175

6.4 FCs and Automotive Applications 177

6.4.1 PEMFC Systems in Automobiles 179

Summary and Concluding Remarks 182

References 182

7 Power Density and Durability in Fuel Cell Vehicles 199
H. Heidary and M. Moein-Jahromi

7.1 Fuel Cell Performance and Power Density 200

7.1.1 Introduction 200

7.1.2 Bipolar Plate 201 Blockages Along the Flow-Field of PEMFCs 202

7.1.3 Bio-Inspired Flow Fields 207

7.1.4 Metal Foam 209

7.1.5 Recent Progress in Bipolar Plates of Vehicular Fuel Cells 213

7.2 Fuel Cell Degradation Mechanisms 215

7.2.1 Introduction 215

7.2.2 Start-Stop Cycling 219

7.2.3 Open Circuit Voltage (OCV)/Idling Operation 223 H2 O2 Generation and Free Radicals' Attack 223 Pt Catalyst Degradation 226

7.2.4 Load Cycling 230 Mechanical Degradation of Load Cycling 231 Starvation 231 Chemical Degradation of Load Cycling 233

7.2.5 High Power 234

7.2.6 Summary of Aging Mechanisms 235

7.2.7 Measures to Control and Reduce the Degradation Rate of Fuel Cell 237

References 239

Index 257
Mehmet Sankir, PhD, is a full professor in the Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey, and group leader of the Advanced Membrane Technologies Laboratory. He received his PhD degree in Macromolecular Science and Engineering from the Virginia Polytechnic and State University, the USA, in 2005. Dr. Sankir's research interests include membranes for fuel cells, flow batteries, hydrogen generation, and desalination. This is his sixth co-edited book with the Wiley-Scrivener imprint.

Nurdan Demirci Sankir, PhD, is a full professor in the Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering Department at the TOBB University of Economics and Technology (TOBB ETU), Ankara, Turkey. She received her M.Eng and PhD degrees in Materials Science and Engineering from the Virginia Polytechnic and State University, the USA, in 2005. She established the Energy Research and Solar Cell Laboratories at TOBB ETU and her research interests include photovoltaic devices, solution-based thin-film manufacturing, solar-driven water splitting, photocatalytic degradation, and nanostructured semiconductors. This is her sixth co-edited book with the Wiley-Scrivener imprint.

M. Sankir, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey; N. D. Sankir, TOBB University of Economics and Technology (TOBB ETU), Ankara, Turkey